Oligodendroglioma in Children
brain is part of the central nervous system (CNS). The CNS also includes the spinal
cord. A tumor is an abnormal growth of tissue. An oligodendroglioma is a type of CNS
tumor called a glioma. These are tumors that start in the glial cells. The glial cells
act as supports for other brain cells. There are many types of gliomas.
Oligodendroglioma is a rare tumor that starts in cells called oligodendrocytes. These
are the cells that help form the fatty covering (myelin) of nerve cells.
- Are more common in adults than in children
start out growing slowly (low-grade), but tend to change over time and then grow
grow into the brain tissue, making them hard to remove with surgery
- May be mixed with other types of cells that also support the brain
spread beyond the CNS to other parts of the body
Researchers don't know what causes
brain tumors. Changes (mutations) in the genes (DNA) likely cause normal cells to turn
into cancer. These may be passed on from parents to children (inherited). Or may happen
without a known reason.
Symptoms of brain tumors depend on their size and where they are in the brain. For example, if a tumor develops in the region that controls speech, your child's speech may be affected.
Symptoms of an oligodendroglioma may include:
- Headaches, especially when first waking up
- Trouble with thinking, memory, or concentration
- Nausea and vomiting
- Problems with vision or speech
- Weakness or numbness, often just on one side of the face or body
The symptoms of oligodendroglioma can be like other health conditions. Make sure your child sees a healthcare provider for a diagnosis.
child's healthcare provider will ask about your child's health history and symptoms. The
provider will do a physical exam that includes a neurological exam. The exam tests
reflexes, muscle strength, eye and mouth movement, and coordination. Your child's
healthcare provider may refer your child to a cancer specialist (oncologist). Your child
may need tests such as:
A CT scan uses a series of X-rays and a computer to make detailed pictures of the
body. Your child may drink a contrast dye or it may be injected into a vein. The dye
helps show more details.
An MRI uses large magnets, radio waves, and a computer
to make detailed pictures of the body. Contrast dye may be injected into your child's
vein. It helps show clearly.
Biopsy. Tumor cells are removed and sent to a lab for testing. This
is done to find out the type of tumor and how quickly it' s likely to grow. This may
be done during surgery.
of diagnosing oligodendroglioma and deciding on treatment is called grading. Grading
describes how much the cancer cells look like normal cells. Most tumors are graded on a
scale of I (1) to IV (4). Grade I means that the cancer cells look a lot like normal
cells and are likely to grow slowly. They' re called low-grade. Grade IV means that the
cancer cells look very different and are likely to grow quickly. They' re called
high-grade. Grade IV tumors are also called anaplastic oligodendrogliomas. Grades II
and III are in between. They are called intermediate-grade. Talk with the doctor about
the grade of your child's cancer and what it means.
your child has been diagnosed with a brain tumor and time allows, you may want your
child to see a different oncologist to get a second opinion. This may help you better
understand the treatment options and feel good about the treatment choices you make.
It's important for your child to be treated at a center that specializes in treating
cancer in children. Most children are treated in a clinical trial. These are studies
that compare the best treatments available now with treatments that are thought to be
even better. Your doctor may talk to you about this option.
Treatment may include one or more of the below:
This is done to remove part or all of the tumor. More surgery may be needed over time, if the tumor grows back. Surgery may be followed by chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
These are medicines that kill cancer cells. One or more medicines may be given.
These are high-energy X-rays or other types of radiation. They' re used to kill
cancer cells or stop them from growing.
Clinical trials. A
clinical trial is a way to test new treatments for cancer. Ask your child's
healthcare provider if there are any treatments being tested that may work well for
your child. Many new treatments are only available in clinical trials.
Treatment can cause side effects. Medicines and other treatments can be used for
pain, fever, infection, and nausea and vomiting. This an important part of cancer
Other parts of treatment may include:
Steroids. These are medicines help prevent or reduce swelling in the
These help to prevent or control any seizures.
placement. A shunt is a small plastic tube. It’s put into the skull to
drain any fluid that has built up in or around the brain.
With any cancer, how well a child is expected to recover (prognosis) varies. Keep in mind:
medical treatment right away is important for the best prognosis. Cancer that has
spread is harder to treat.
- Ongoing follow-up care during and after treatment is needed.
with the doctor about any concerns you have or problems you notice. Your child's
treatment team wants to know as much as they can about how your child is doing.
child may have short- and long-term problems from the tumor or from treatment. They may
include things such as:
- Damage to the brain or nervous system that causes problems with coordination, muscle strength, speech, or eyesight
- Problems after surgery, such as infection, bleeding, and problems with general anesthesia
- Infection and bleeding from chemotherapy
- Delayed growth and development
- Learning problems
- Problems with reproduction (infertility)
of the cancer (recurrence)
- Increased risk for other cancers later in life
the doctor about what you should watch for and what can be done to help prevent
child with a brain tumor needs special care for the rest of his or her life . Your child
will be seen by oncologists and other healthcare providers to treat any late effects of
treatment and to watch for symptoms of the tumor returning. Your child will be checked
with imaging tests and other tests. And your child may see other healthcare providers
for problems from the tumor or from treatment. For example, your child may see an eye
doctor (ophthalmologist) for vision problems.
Your child may need therapy to help with movement and muscle strength. This may be done by physical and occupational therapists. If your child's speech is affected, he or she may need help from a speech therapist. Your child may also need the help of other therapists for learning or emotional problems.
You can help your child manage his or her treatment in many ways. For example:
- Your child may have trouble eating. A dietitian may be able to help.
- Your child may be very tired. He or she will need to balance rest and activity. Encourage your child to get some exercise. This is good for overall health. And it may help to lessen tiredness.
emotional support for your child. Find a counselor or child support group can
- Make sure your child attends all follow-up appointments.
When to Call a Healthcare Provider
Call the healthcare provider if your child has:
- Symptoms that get worse
- New symptoms
- Side effects from treatment
- Oligodendroglioma is a type of brain tumor. It’s a rare tumor that grows in the cells that make up the fatty covering of nerve cells.
re rare in children.
- Symptoms may include seizures, headaches, trouble with thinking, memory, or concentration, and nausea and vomiting.
may be diagnosed with MRI, CT scan, or both.
- Treatment is usually surgery. It may be followed by chemotherapy, radiation therapy,
- Ongoing care is important.
the cancer is so rare, it's important for your child to be treated at a center that
specializes in the disease.
to help you get the most from a visit to your child’s healthcare provider:
- Know the reason for the visit and what you want to happen.
- Before your visit, write down questions you want answered.
- At the visit, write down the name of a new diagnosis, and any new medicines, treatments, or tests. Also write down any new instructions your provider gives you for your child.
- Know why
a new medicine or treatment is prescribed and how it will help your child. Also know
what the side effects are.
- Ask if your child’s condition can be treated in other ways.
- Know why a test or procedure is recommended and what the results could mean.
- Know what to expect if your child does not take the medicine or have the test or procedure.
- If your child has a follow-up appointment, write down the date, time, and purpose for that visit.
how you can contact your child’s provider after office hours. This is important if
and you have questions or need advice.